Publications

2019

70. Ultra-low Schottky Barrier Height and Strong p-doping in Direct O2 Plasma Treated WSe2 Devices.
Yi-Tse Hung et al. Under-review Small (2019)


69. WSe(2-x)Tex Alloys Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy
Adam T. Barton, Ruoyu Yue, Lee A. Walsh, Christopher Cormier, Christopher M. Smyth, Rafik Addou, Luigi Colombo, Robert M Wallace, Christopher L. Hinkle (Under Review, 2019)

68. Origins of Fermi Level Pinning Between Molybdenum Dichalcogenides (MoSe2, MoTe2) and Contact Metals (Au, Ir, Cr, Sc): Interface Chemistry and Band Alignment 
Christopher M. Smyth, Rafik Addou, Christopher L. Hinkle, Robert M. Wallace (Submitted, 2019)

67. Engineering the Interface Chemistry for Scandium Electron Contacts in WSe2 Transistors and Diodes.
C. M. Smyth, L. A. Walsh, P. Bolshakov, M. Catalano, M. Schmidt, B. Sheehan, R. Addou, L. Wang, J. Kim, M. J. Kim, C. D. Young, C. L. Hinkle, R. M. Wallace
Under-review 2D Materials (2019)

66. Enhancing interconnect reliability/performance by converting tantalum to 2D layered tantalum sulfide at low-temperature
C.-L. Lo, M. Catalano, A. Khosravi, W. Ge, Y. Ji, D. Y. Zemlyanov, L. Wang, R. Addou, Y. Liu, R. M. Wallace, M. J. Kim, and Zhihong Chen. Accepted (2019)

65. High-κ Dielectric on ReS2: In-situ Thermal Vs Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Al2O3
Ava Khosravi, Rafik Addou, Massimo Catalano, Jiyoung Kim, Robert M.Wallace
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1056 - Link  
 


64. Engineering the Pd–WSe2 Interface Chemistry for FETs with High Performance Hole Contacts.
C. M. Smyth, L. Walsh, P. Bolshakov, M. Catalano, R. Addou, L. Wang, J. Kim, M. Kim, C. Young, C. L. Hinkle, R. M. Wallace.
ACS Appl. Nano Mater. (2019) - Link

63. Using Photoelectron Spectroscopy in the Integration of 2D Materials for Advanced Devices.
Rafik Addou and Robert M. Wallace.
J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom, 231, 94-103 (2019) - Review Paper Link


2018

62. Dislocation driven spiral and non-spiral growth in layered chalcogenides: morphology, mechanism, and mitigation.
Y. Nie, A. T. Barton, R. Addou, Y. Zheng, L. A. Walsh, S. M. Eichfeld, R. Yue, C. R. Cormier, C. Zhang, Q. Wang, C. Liang, J. A. Robinson, M. J. Kim, W. G. Vandenberghe, L. Colombo, P. Cha, R. M. Walalce, C. L. Hinkle, K. Cho.
Nanoscale 10, 15023-15034 (2018)

61. High-Mobility Helical Tellurium Field Effect Transistors Enabled by Transfer-Free, Low-Temperature Direct Growth.

G. Zhou, R. Addou, Q. Wang, S. Honari, C. R. Cormier, L. Cheng, R. yue, C. M. Smyth, A. Laturia, J. Kim, W. G. Vandenberghe, R. M. Walace, C. L. Hinkle.
Adv. Mater. 1803109 (2018)

60. Chapter 22 - Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides.
Lee A. Walsh, Rafik Addou, Robert M. Wallace, Christopher L. Hinkle.
Molecular Beam Epitaxy, From Research to Mass Production, Second Edition, 2018, Edit. Mohamed Henini. ISBN 978-0-12-812136-8 - Book Chapter
59. Fermi Level Manipulation Through Native Doping in the Topological Insulator Bi2Se3.
L. A. Walsh, A. J. Green, R. Addou, W. Nolting, C. R. Cormier, A. T. Barton, T. R. Mowll, R. Yue, N. Lu, J. Kim, M. J. Kim, V. P. LaBella, C. A. Ventrice, Jr., S. McDonnell, W. G. Vandenberghe, R. M. Wallace, A. Diebold, and C, L Hinkle.
ACS Nano 12, 6310-6318 (2018).

58.
One Dimensional Metallic Edges in Atomically Thin WSe2 Induced by Air Exposure.
R. Addou, C. M. Smyth, J.-Y. Noh, Y.-C. Lin, Y. Pan, S. M. Eichfeld, S. Fölsch, J. A. Robinson, K. Cho, R. M. Feenstra, and R. M. Wallace.
2D Mater. 5, 025017 (2018) - Link

57.
Tuning the electronic and photonic properties of monolayer MoS2 via ­in-situ Re substitutional doping.
K. Zhang, B. Bersch, J. Joshi, R. Addou, C. R. Cormier, C. Zhang, K. Xu, N. Briggs, K. Wang, S. Subramanian, K. Cho, S. Fullerton, R. M. Wallace, P. Vora, J. A. Robinson.
Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 1706950 (2018)


56. Realizing Large-Scale, Electronic-Grade Two-Dimensional Materials
Y.-C. Lin, B. J ariwala, B.M. Bersch, K. Xu, Y. Ni, B. Wang, S.M. Eichfeld, X. Zhang, T.H. Choudhury, Y. Pan, R. Addou, C.M. Smyth, J. Li, K. Zhang, A. Haque, S. Fölsch, R.M. Feenstra, R.M. Wallace, K. Cho, S.K. Fullerton-Shire, J.M. Redwing, J.A. Robinson.
ACS Nano 12, 965-975 (2018)

55.
Covalent Nitrogen Doping in MBE and Bulk WSe2
A. Khosravi, R. Addou, C.M. Smyth, R. Yue, C.R. Cormier, J. Kim, C.L. Hinkle, R.M. Wallace.
APL Materials 6, 026603 (2018)

2017

54. Defects and surface structural stability of MoTe2 under vacuum annealing.
H. Zhu, Q. Wang, L. Cheng, R. Addou, J. Kim, Moon J. Kim, R. M. Wallace.
ACS Nano 11, 11005-11014 (2017)

53.
Schottky Barrier Height of Pd/MoS2 Contact by Large Area Photoemission Spectroscopy.
H. Dong, C. Gong, R. Addou, S. McDonnell, A. Azcatl, X. Qin, W. Wang, W.-H. Wang, C.L. Hinkle, and R.M. Wallace.
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 38977-38983 (2017)

52.
Nucleation and Growth of WSe2: Enabling Large Grain Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. R. Yue, Y. Nie, L.A. Walsh, R. Addou, C. Liang, N. Lu, A.T. Barton, H. Zhu, Z. Che, D. Barrera, L. Cheng, Y.J. Chabal, J.W.P. Hsu, J. Kim, M.J. Kim, R.M. Wallace, K. Cho, C.L. Hinkle.
2D Mater. 4 045019 (2017)

51.
In Situ Heating Study of 2H-MoTe2 to Mo6Te6 Nanowire Phase Transition.
Q. Wang, H. Zhu, C. Zhang, R. Addou, K. Cho, R. M. Wallace, and M. J. Kim.
Microsc. Microanal. 23 (S1), 1764-1765 (2017)

50.
Carbon Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition of Hexagonal Boron Nitride. A. Ismach, H. Chou, P. Mende, A. Dolocan, R. Addou, S. Aloni, R. Wallace, R. Feenstra, R. S. Ruoff, L. Colombo.
2D Mater. 4, 025117 (2017)

49.
Integration of 2D Materials for Advanced Devices: Challenges and Opportunities.
Rafik Addou & Robert M. Wallace.
ECS Trans. 79, 11-20 (2017)

48.
WSe2-contact metal interface chemistry and band alignment under high vacuum and ultra high vacuum deposition conditions.
C. Smyth, R. Addou, S. McDonnell, C. L. Hinkle, R. M. Wallace.
2D Mater. 4, 025084 (2017)

47.
Unrealized Air-Stability Mechanism of Two-Dimensional Layered Transition-Metal Dichalcogenide Surfaces.
R. Longo, R. Addou, S. K.C., J. Noh, C. Smyth, D. Barrera, J. Hsu, R. M. Wallace, K. Cho.
2D Mater. 4, 025050 (2017)

46.
WTe2 Thin Films Grown by Beam-Interrupted Molecular Beam Epitaxy.
L. Walsh, R. Yue, Q. Wang, A. T. Barton, R. Addou, C. M. Smyth, H. Zhu, J. Kim, L. Colombo, M. J. Kim, R. M. Wallace, C. L. Hinkle.
2D Mater. 4, 025044 (2017)

45.
New Mo6Te6 Subnanometer-Diameter Nanowire Phase from 2H-MoTe2.
H. Zhu, Q. Wang, C. Zhang, R. Addou, K. Cho, R. M. Wallace, and M. J. Kim.
Adv. Mater. 1606264 (2017)

2016

44. Electronic properties of MoS2/MoOx Interfaces: Implications in Tunnel Field Effect Transistors and Hole Contacts.S. K.C., R. C. Longo, R. Addou, R. M. Wallace, and K. Cho.
Scientific Reports 6, 33562 (2016)

43.
Surface Analysis of WSe2 Crystals: Spatial and Electronic Variability.
Rafik Addou
& Robert M. Wallace.
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 26400–26406 (2016)

42. Covalent Nitrogen Doping and Compressive Strain in MoS
2 by Remote N2 Plasma Exposure.
A. Azcatl, X. Qin, A. Prakash, C. Zhang, L. Cheng, Q. Wang, N. Lu, M. J. Kim, J. Kim, K. Cho, R. Addou, C. L. Hinkle, J. Appenzeller, R. M. Wallace.
Nano Lett. 16, 5437–5443 (2016)

41. Contact Metal-MoS
2 Interfacial Reactions and Potential Implications on Device Performance.
Christopher M. Smyth, Rafik Addou, Stephen McDonnell, Christopher Hinkle, Robert M. Wallace.
J. Phys. Chem. C 120 (27), 14719–14729 (2016)

40. Physico-Chemical Characterisation of MoS
2/Metal and MoS2/Oxide Interfaces (Book Chapter #7).
Stephen McDonnell, Rafik Addou, Christopher L. Hinkle, and Robert M. Wallace.
'2D Materials for Nanoelectronics' CRC Press 2016, Pages 163–206. Print ISBN: 978-1-4987-0417-5, DOI: 10.1201/b19623-10

39. Tuning Electronic Transport in Epitaxial Graphene-based van der Waals Heterostructures.
Y.-C. Lin, J. Li, S. Barrera, S. Eichfield, Y. Nie, R. Addou, P. C. Mende, R.M. Wallace, K. Cho, R. M. Feenstra, J. Robinson.
Nanoscale 8, 8947-8954 (2016)

38. Recombination kinetics and effects of superacid treatment in sulfur and selenium based transition metal dichalcogenides.

M. Amani, R. Addou, G. H. Ahn, D. Kiriya, P Taheri, D.-H. Lien, J. W. Ager, R. M. Wallace, and A. Javey.
Nano Lett. 16, 2786–2791 (2016)

37. Partially Fluorinated Graphene: Structural and Electrical Characterization.

L. Cheng, S. Jandhyala, G. Mordi, A. T. Lucero, J. Huang, A. Azcatl, R. Addou, Robert M. Wallace, L. Colombo, and J. Kim.
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 5002-5008 (2016)

2015

36. Near-Unity Photoluminescence Quantum Yield in MoS2. M. Amani, D.-H. Lien, D. Kiriya, J. Xiao, A. Azcatl, J. Noh, S. Madhvapathy, R. Addou, S. KC, M. Dubey, S.-C. Lee, Jr-H. He, J. Ager, X. Zhang, E. Yablonovitch, K. Cho, R. M. Wallace, A. Javey. Science 350, 1065-1068 (2015)

35. Manganese Doping of Monolayer MoS2: The Substrate is Critical.
K. Zhang, S. Feng, J. Wang, A. Azcatl, N. Lu, R. Addou, N. Wang, C. Zhou, J. Lerach, V. Bojan, M. J. Kim, L.-Q. Chen, R. M. Wallace, M. Terrones, J. Zhu and J. A. Robinson. Nano Lett., 15, 6586–6591 (2015)

34. Excellent Wetting Behaviour of Y
2O3 on 2D Materials. Rafik Addou, Matthias Batzill, Robert M. Wallace. ECS Trans. 69, 325-336 (2015)

33. Impurities and Electronic Property Variations of Natural MoS2 Crystal Surfaces.
R. Addou, S. McDonnell, D. Barrera, Z. Guo, A. Azcatl, J. Wang, H. Zhu, C. L. Hinkle, M. Quevedo-Lopez, H. N Alshareef, L. Colombo, J. W. P. Hsu, R. M. Wallace. ACS Nano 9, 9124-9133 (2015)

32. Atomically thin resonant tunnel diodes built from synthetic van der Waals heterostructures.
Y.-C. Lin, R. K. Ghosh, R. Addou, N. Lu, S. M. Eichfeld, H. Zhu, M.-Y. Li, X. Peng, M. J. Kim, L.-J. Li, R. M. Wallace, S. Datta, and J. A. Robinson. Nat. Commun., 6, 7311 (2015)

31. Al
2O3 on Black Phosphorus by Atomic Layer Deposition: An in situ Interface Study. H. Zhu, S. McDonnell, X. Qin, A. Azcatl, L. Cheng, R. Addou, J. Kim, P. D. Ye and R. M. Wallace. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 7, 13038-13043 (2015)

30. Surface defects on Natural MoS
2. R. Addou, L. Colombo and R. M. Wallace. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, 7, 11921-11929 (2015)

29. Transition Metal Dichalcogenide and Hexagonal Boron Nitride Heterostructures Grown by Molecular Beam Epitaxy.
A. T. Barton, R. Yue, S. Anwar, H. Zhu, X. Peng, S. McDonnell, N. Lu, R. Addou, L. Colombo, M. J. Kim, R. M. Wallace, and C. L. Hinkle. Microelectron. Eng. 147, 306-309 (2015)
28. Surface and interfacial research of half cycle atomic layer deposited Al2O3 on black phosphorus. H. Zhu, X. Qin, A. Azcatl, R. Addou, S. McDonnell, P. D. Ye, and R. M. Wallace. Microelectron. Eng. 147, 1-4 (2015)
27. Direct observation of interlayer hybridization and Dirac relativistic carriers in graphene/MoS2 van der Waals heterostructures. H. Coy-Diaz, J. Avila, C. Chen, R. Addou, M. C. Asensio, M. Batzill. Nano Lett. 15, 1135-1140 (2015)
26. HfO2 on UV-O3 exposed Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Interfacial Reactions Study. A Azcatl, S. KC, X. Peng, N. Lu, S. McDonnell, X. Qin, F. de Dios, R. Addou, J. Kim, M. J. Kim, K. Cho, and R. M. Wallace. 2D Mater. 2 014004 (2015)
25. Seeding atomic layer deposition of alumina on graphene with yttria. A. Dahal, R. Addou, A. Azcatl, H. Coy-Diaz, Ning Lu, Xin Peng, F. de Dios, J. Kim, M. J. Kim, R. M. Wallace, and M. Batzill. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7 (3), 2082–2087 (2015)
24. Wet-transfer of chemical vapor deposition graphene onto sulfur protected W(110) surface. A. Dahal, R. Addou, H. Coy-Diaz, and M. Batzill. Surf. Sci. 634, 9-15 (2015)

2014

23. HfSe2 Thin Films: 2D Transition Metal Dichalcogenides Grown by MBE. R. Yue, A. T. Barton, H. Zhu, A. Azcatl, L. F. Pena, J. Wang, X. Peng, N. Lu, L. Cheng, R. Addou, S. McDonnell, L. Colombo, J. W. P. Hsu, J. Kim, M. J. Kim, R. M. Wallace, C. L. Hinkle. ACS Nano 9, 474-480 (2014)
22. Atomically thin heterostructures based on single-layer tungsten diselenide and graphene. Y.-C. Lin, C.-Y. S. Chang, R. Ghosh, J. Li, H. Zhu, R. Addou, B. Diaconescu, T. Ohta, X. Peng, N. Lu, M. Kim, J. T. Robinson, R. M. Wallace, T. S. Mayer, S. Datta, L.-J. Li, and J. A. Robinson. Nano Lett. 14 (12), 6936-6941 (2014)
21. Impact of Intrinsic Atomic Defects on the Electronic Structure of MoS2 monolayers. S. KC, R. C. Longo, R. Addou, R. M. Wallace and K. Cho. Nanotechnology 25 375703 (2014)
20. Influence of Hydroxyls on Pd-Atom Mobility and Clustering on Rutile-TiO2(011)-2×1. R. Addou, T. P. Senftle , N. O'Connor , M. J. Janik , A. C.T. van Duin, M. Batzill. ACS Nano 8, 6321-6333 (2014)
19. Hole Contacts on Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Interface Chemistry and Band Alignments. S. McDonnell, A. Azcatl, R. Addou, C. Gong, C. Battaglia, S. Chuang, K. Cho, A. Javey, R. M. Wallace. ACS Nano 8, 6265-6272 (2014)
18. MoS2 Functionalization for Ultra-thin Atomic Layer Deposited Dielectrics. A. Azcatl, S. McDonnell, S. KC, X. Peng, H. Dong, X. Qin, R. Addou, G. I. Mordi, N. Lu, J. Kim, M. J. Kim, K. Cho, R. M. Wallace. Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 111601 (2014).
17. Defect-Dominated Doping and Contact Resistance in MoS2. S. McDonnell, R. Addou, C. Buie, R. M. Wallace, C. L. Hinkle. ACS Nano, 8, 2880–2888 (2014).
16. Interface properties of CVD grown graphene transferred on to MoS2(0001). H. Coy-Diaz, R. Addou, M. Batzill. Nanoscale 6, 1071-1078 (2014)

2013

15. Charge doping of graphene in metal/graphene/dielectric sandwich structures evaluated by C-1s core level photoemission spectroscopy. A. Dahal, R. Addou, H. Coy-Diaz, J. Lallo and M. Batzill. APL Mat. 1, 042107 (2013)
14. Interface between graphene and SrTiO3(001) investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and photoemission. H. Coy-Diaz, R. Addou, M. Batzill. J. Phys. Chem. C, 117, 21006-210013 (2013)
13. Combined surface science and DFT study of adsorption of dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) on rutile TiO2(110): Molecular scale insight for sensing of explosives. J. Tao, Q. Cuan, S. Halpegamage, R. Addou, X-Q. Gong and M. Batzill. J. Phys. Chem. C, 117, 16468-16476 (2013)
12. Preparation and characterization of Ni(111)/graphene/Y2O3 heterostructures. A. Dahal, H. Coy, R. Addou, J. Lallo, E. Sutter, M. Batzill. J. Appl. Phys. 113, 194305 (2013)
11. Grain boundaries in self-ordered terephthalic acid (TPA) monolayers on quasi freestanding polycrystalline graphene supported on Pt(111). Rafik Addou & Matthias Batzill. Langmuir 29 (21) 6354-6360 (2013)
10. Structural investigation of Pb adsorption on the (010) surface of the orthorhombic T-Al3(Mn, Pd) crystal. R. Addou, A. K. Shukla, M. Heggen, M. Feuerbacher, O. Groening, V. Fournée, J. M. Dubois and J. Ledieu. Surf. Sci. 611, 74-79 (2013)
9. Growth of a two dimensional dielectric monolayer on quasi-freestanding graphene. R. Addou, A. Dahal and M. Batzill. Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 41-45 (2013)

2012

8. Atomic and electronic structure of graphene/Sn-Ni(111) and graphene/Sn-Cu(111) surface alloy interfaces. L. Adamska, R. Addou, M. Batzill and I.I. Oleynik. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101 051602 (2012)
7. Graphene monolayer rotation on Ni(111) facilitates bilayer graphene growth. A. Dahal, R. Addou, P. Sutter and M. Batzill. Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 241602 (2012)
6. Graphene on ordered Ni-alloy surfaces formed by metal (Sn, Al) intercalation between graphene/Ni(111). R. Addou, A. Dahal and M. Batzill. Surf. Sci. 606 1108 (2012)
5. Monolayer graphene growth on Ni(111) by low temperature chemical vapor deposition. R. Addou, A. Dahal, P. Sutter and M. Batzill. Appl. Phys. Lett. 100 021601 (2012)

2011

4. Pseudomorphy, surface alloys and the role of the elementary clusters on the domain orientations in the Cu/Al13Co4 (100) system. R. Addou, A. K. Shukla, M.-C. de Weerd, P. Gille, R. Widmer, O. Groening, V. Fournée, J. M. Dubois and J. Ledieu. J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 23 (43) 435009 (2011)
3. Lead adsorption on the Al13Co4 (100) surface: heterogeneous nucleation and pseudomorphic growth. R. Addou, A. K. Shukla, S. A. Alarcon Villaseca, E. Gaudry, T. Deniozou, M. Heggen, M. Feuerbacher, R. Widmer, O. Groening, V. Fournée, J. M. Dubois and J. Ledieu. New J. Phys. 13 103011 (2011)

2010

2. Structure of the (010) surface of the orthorhombic complex metallic alloy T-Al3(Mn, Pd). T. Deniozou, R. Addou, A. K. Shukla, M. Krajci, J. Hafner, M. Heggen, M. Feuerbacher, R. Widmer, O. Groening, V. Fournée, J. M. Dubois and J. Ledieu. Phys. Rev. B 81 125418 (2010)

2009

1. Structure Investigation of the (100) surface of the orthorhombic Al13Co4 crystal. R. Addou, E. Gaudry, T. Deniozou, M. Heggen, M. Feuerbacher, P. Gille, R. Widmer, O. Groening, V. Fournée, Y. Grin, J. M. Dubois, and J. Ledieu. Phys. Rev. B 80 014203 (2009)

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"Complex Metallic Alloy Surfaces: Structure, Properties and Nanostructured Surface"

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