New Paper! Fermi Level Pinning on Tungsten Dichalcogenides

Origins of Fermi Level Pinning for Ni and Ag Metal Contacts on Tungsten Dichalcogenides
Xinglu Wang,Yaoqiao Hu, Seong Yeoul Kim, Rafik Addou, Kyeongjae Cho, and Robert M. Wallace

Tungsten transition metal dichalcogenides (W-TMDs) are intriguing due to their properties and potential for application in next-generation electronic devices. However, strong Fermi level (EF) pinning manifests at the metal/W-TMD interfaces, which could tremendously restrain the carrier injection into the channel. In this work, we illustrate the origins of EFpinning for Ni and Ag contacts on W-TMDs by considering interface chemistry, band alignment, impurities, and imperfections of W-TMDs, contact metal adsorption mechanism, and the resultant electronic structure. We conclude that the origins of EF pinning at a covalent contact metal/W-TMD interface, such as Ni/W-TMDs, can be attributed to defects, impurities, and interface reaction products. In contrast, for a van der Waals contact metal/TMD system such as Ag/W-TMDs, the primary factor responsible for EF pinning is the electronic modification of the TMDs resulting from the defects and impurities with the minor impact of metal-induced gap states. The potential strategies for carefully engineering the metal deposition approach are also discussed. This work unveils the origins of EF pinning at metal/TMD interfaces experimentally and theoretically and provides guidance on further enhancing and improving the device performance